Goy, Goyim (pl) = Gentiles, heathen, foreign to the God of Israel
HaShem = YHVH, 'The Name'
Kashrut = Kosher dietary laws.
Mashiach / Moshiach = 'annointed' - translated Messiah or Christ.
Messianist = Early name for a follower of Yeshua the Messiah
Mikveh = 'Gathering of waters' - immersion of people or utensils for purity
Mitzvah = Commandment, good deed
Parsha = Weekly Torah readings read corporately and studied at home. Consists of readings from the Torah, Haftarah(Prophets), Brit Chadasha (NT)
Ruach HaKodesh – Holy Spirit (sometimes shortened to Ruach)
Septuagint = Greek translation of the Tanach (see below)
Shabbat = Sabbath Day, the seventh day
Shema = Hear - "Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD" (Deuteronomy 6:4)
Shofar = Ram's horn ('trumpet' in some bibles) - can be made from horns of any clean animal except cow (e.g., African Kudu)
Tallit = Four-cornered cloth used by Jewish men, prayer shawl (Numbers 15:38)
Talmid / talmidim (pl.) = disciple / student. The talmid imitated the conduct and character of the rabbi (teacher); the rabbi was responsible for the care of the talmidim.
Talmud = Rabbinical Jewish tradition. The collection of ancient Rabbinical writ-ings consisting of the Mishnah (code of Jewish law edited about 200 CE) and the Gemara (Rabbinical legal and ethical discussions).
Tanach = Old Testament - consists of 3 sections: Torah (first 5 books), Nevi'im (Prophets), Kethuvim/Ketuvim (Writings).
Teshuvah = Repentance: stopping and turning toward HaShem. ‘Return’ as in ‘return to HaShem’.
Tzitzit / tzitziyot (pl.) = Originally the fringe on the four corners of garments. Lat-er, fringes were sewn on tallits. Fringe on a tallit (Numbers 15:37-41 and Deu-teronomy 22:12). (Techelet/T'chelet/Tekhelet = blue cord on each corner of the tzitzit, (Numbers 15:38) Traditional Judaism doesn't add the blue cord to the tzitzit.)
Torah = Instruction (or Word; see John 1:1) - “Law” - the books of Moshe: Gen-esis - Deuteronomy. Traditional: all Jewish law.
Yehudah = Judah (Jacob’s son, his descendants, tribe’s allotment in Promised Land, Southern Kingdom)
Yeshua / Y’shua / Yahshua= Messiah's given Hebrew name, meaning, "He is Sal-vation" (Matthew 1:21). "Jesus" was derived from "Ieosus," the Greek translit-eration of Yeshua
YHWH / YHVH / YAHWEH = Tetragrammaton - four Hebrew letters forming biblical proper name of God.